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AYA Cancers Overview

Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) can behave like a different disease than cancer in children or in older adults.  While significantly more research is needed to better AYA cancer outcomes, here you will find links to current research and articles on the most common AYA cancers including AYA issues regarding fertility preservation, survivorship, psychosocial and palliative care.

Common AYA Cancers

Brain Tumors

Of brain and other nervous system cancer diagnoses from 2004-2008 approximately 12.9% were diagnosed under the age of 20, 8.9% between 20 and 34, and 9.6% between 35 and 44. Common symptoms of such diseases among the young adult population include headache, vomiting, alteration in mood, limb weakness, bladder/bowel dysfunction, and seizures.

Source: Bleyer A. CAUTION! Consider Cancer: Common...

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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer by the age of 40 accounts for more than 40% of all cancers diagnosed among women. Breast cancer survival rates in women under 40 years of age are lower than those seen in older women regardless of disease staging or subtype. When developing treatment plans for young women diagnosed with breast cancer it is important to address fertility issues such as infertility and pregnancy as well as a deeper...

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Cervical Cancer

Carcinomas of the uterine cervix are the most common cancer of the female genital tract among females ages 15-29. In 2006, it was noted that the 5-year overall survival rates for cervical cancer had not improved over the previous 25 years for this age group. Cervical cancer occurs more often in females infected with certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV). Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers that can be...

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Colorectal Cancer

In 2008, approximately 6% of all new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed occurred before the age of 40 and 3% of those cases diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40. While CRC is considered rare overall among young adults, the incidence in this population has been increasing over the last 25 years with predisposing factors still unknown. Commonly children and young adults diagnosed with CRC present with...

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Germ Cell Tumors

Germ cell tumors are derived from germ cells, reproductive cells normally occurring in the ovary and testis. Although the incidence of germ cell tumors varies with age, cases before the age of 15 are rare and a peak is seen between 20 and 39 years of age. Germ cell tumor represents about 21% of invasive cancer diagnoses and is most common cancer among males ages 20-39. Germ cell tumors of the ovary are seen to have...

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Leukemia

Approximately 43,000 men and women were diagnosed with leukemia in the United States in 2009.  The disease is unique in that it is common in both pediatric (<15) cancer patients and in older adult (>60) cancer patients.  Of those diagnosed with leukemia, approximately 2600, or six percent, were diagnosed as adolescents or young adults (AYAs).  Although there have been vast improvements in survival rates...

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Liver Cancer

Primary liver neoplasms account for only 1% of all neoplasms in young people ages 15-29 with heptaocellular carcinomas (HCCs) being the most common liver tumor seen in adolescents and young adults (AYA). The leading cause of HCC in AYAs in Asia and Africa is chronic infection from hepatitis B virus while in Western countries less than a third of AYAs develop HCC from hepatitis or other inflammatory liver diseases....

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Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent 13% of total cancer diagnoses in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population ages 15-39. Even though we continue to learn more and more about the general histological and molecular characteristics of NHL and HL, we are still lacking knowledge based on the unique biology of lymphomas in the AYA population as compared to the better understanding gained...

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Melanoma

Melanoma is the 7th most common cancer in women and 6th most common cancer in men in the United States. The incidence of melanoma in California, a state with high sun-exposure, is the second most common of all cancers in young people under the age of 40. The 5-year overall survival for young people with malignant melanoma, presenting as a localized region, exceeds 90%.  However, despite the...

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Sarcoma

Globally, the incidence of sarcoma in young adults is approximately 2/100,000 persons with a greater incidence in males over females by a 2:1 ratio. Previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure before the age of 20, as well as exposure to certain chemical agents, has been linked to an increased risk in the development of sarcoma in the young adult population. Young adult sarcoma patients seem to do worse then their...

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Testicular Cancer

The most common solid tumor in males ages 20-39 is testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is highly curable with 5-year survival rates above 96%. Long-term effects of both the testicular cancer and its treatment are important in understanding survivorship in this population. Chemotherapy poses its own specific risks such as vascular toxicity, lung disease and renal dysfunction. Also important is the understanding of...

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Thyroid Cancer

Almost one third of all new thyroid cancers diagnosed are in young adults ages 20 to 40 and thyroid carcinomas represent approximately 6-12% of all malignancies diagnosed in this age group. Thyroid carcinomas are 5 times more common in females than males among 20 to 40 year olds, accounting for 4% of all cancers in women. Thyroid cancer is also one of the most common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and...

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SeventyK Tips 4 Life

TipText: 
Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology (JAYAO) breaks new ground as the first cancer journal dedicated to the adolescent and young adult-aged oncology population. You can keep updated with AYA cancer here: http://seventyk.org/get-educated/jayao

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